What is international trade: Meaning, importance & advantages

TPTCL is the proud owner of the first trading license issued by CERC in June 2004, it has Category I, Trading License which entitles it to trade an unlimited volume of power, both on Interstate and Intrastate basis. In a symbolic gesture operationalizing the landmark Agreement, Shri B V R Subrahmanyam, Hon’ble Commerce Secretary to Government of India, handed over Certificates of Origin to three exporters from the Gems & Jewellery sector. The aforementioned consignment which will now attract bilateral trade meaning zero customs duty under this Agreement is expected to reach Dubai today, 01 May 2022. India provides training opportunities to over 400 officials in Sri Lanka annually for skill development and capacity enhancement under the Indian Technical and economic Cooperation Programme . These training programmes are fully funded by Government of India and cover a wide variety of subject matter ranging from IT to Rural Development, Government Procedures to Entrepreneurship, and Banking to Engineering.

  • CEPA is expected to increase the total value of bilateral trade in goods to over US$100 billion and trade in services to over US$ 15 billion within five years.
  • After the items are made, they must transit through a sequence of operations before they may reach the buyer.
  • First, whole-sellers procure manufactured goods from producers, and then they distribute it to the local distributors or retailers.
  • The total number of tourist arrivals from India to Sri Lanka during January-December 2019 was 355,002 i.e. approximately 18.2% of the total tourist arrivals into Sri Lanka.

Here only commodities are exchanged e.g. one country providing raw materials and the other manufactured goods in exchange. Bilateral trade is the exchange of commodities between two countries. The amount of capital required in trade is lower since there are several parties engaged, each of whom must manage their own resources without imposing a burden on the other. Contrary to popular belief, commerce is a broader definition that includes both trade and the various revenue-generating activities that accompany a transaction. Trade has a significantly smaller scope than a business; it largely deals with the selling and purchase of things and encompasses very little else. Trade and commerce deal with the factors of delivering the products to consumers, whereas industry performs the production side of such products.

Government of India

Also, it puts remote locations on the map with global recognition for each place’s strengths along with its shortcomings leading to bustling civilizations followed by betterment. Under agreement establishing GSTP, tariff concessions are exchanged among developing countries, who have signed agreement. Presently, 46 countries are members of GSTP and India has exchanged tariff concessions with 12 countries on a limited number of products. EIC is sole agency authorised to issue Certificate of origin under GSTP. The Sao Paulo Round of the GSTP was concluded among 8 countries but only Cuba, India and Malaysia have ratified the Protocol as of October, 2014.

A Memorandum of Understanding was signed on 07 January 2011 between India and Sri Lanka on passenger transportation by sea. The MoU envisages ferry services between Colombo and Tuticorin and Talaimannar and Rameswaram. The ferry service between Colombo and Tuticorin started operations on 13 June 2011 but was discontinued by the operator in November 2011. Resumption of these services would be an important step in the restoration of the traditional links between the two countries. A line of credit for USD 100 million was announced for Sri Lanka during visit of President of Sri Lanka to New Delhi in March 2018 for the Founding Conference of the International Solar Alliance. Sri Lanka signed the International Solar Alliance Agreement on 31 January 2018.

bilateral trade meaning

Technology is another factor that creates the demand for importing and exporting goods and services. Many countries face problems due to the limitation of technology and infrastructure. Services such as banking, communication, advertising and transportation use modern-day technology and countries who hold expertise in this sector help other countries through international trade.

Imports and exports are two types of foreign commerce that are carried out through the purchase of assets or funds. Ownership of commodities or services is transferred from one person to another in exchange for cash or monetary equivalents via trade. Trade can take place between two parties or between several parties. Bilateral commerce occurs when buying and selling occur between two people, whereas multilateral trade occurs when buying and selling occur between more than two people.

Register to sell internationally

This TLP would cover all tariff lines except those kept in the sensitive list by the member states. Several bilateral agreements provide a strong legal framework for developing the economic relationship such as the bilateral Free Trade Agreement, Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement, Bilateral Investment Protection and Promotion Agreement. There are also bilateral agreements/MoUs on Air Services, Agriculture, Small Development Projects, Cooperation in Economic Projects. In addition there are several Cooperation Agreements in the sectors of Small Scale Industries, Tourism, Telecom and IT, Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and for Cooperation in the field of Science and Technology.

Following the FTA, the two Governments were encouraged by its positive outcomes and success, and felt that more action was required to unleash the full potential of our bilateral economic relations. Even though CEPA negotiations were completed, the agreement was not signed. The Cumulative Rules of Origin encourage the contracting states to source raw materials needed for their exports from each other. Accordingly, an exporter has to show only a minimum DVA of 25% of the FOB value of the finished product, provided the raw materials imported from the other contracting state accounts for not less than 10% of the FOB value of the particular product.

bilateral trade meaning

NASSCOM has estimated that the share of current online-led exports in total exports from India is likely to increase 45 times by 20301. A free trade agreement is an agreement in which two or more countries agree to provide preferential trade terms, tariff concession etc. to the partner country. Here a negative list of products and services is maintained by the negotiating countries on which the terms of FTA are not applicable hence it is more comprehensive than preferential trade agreement.

Information provided about bilateral trade:

India and Sri Lanka will work together for the re-commencement of air connectivity between Palaly and India once regular air-travel resumes and also strive for the comprehensive development of the Palaly airport. Article 7 of the SAFTA Agreement provides for a phased tariff liberalization program under which, in two years, NLDCS would bring down tariffs to 20%, while LDCS will bring them down to 30%. Non-LDCS will then bring down tariffs from 20% to 0-5% in 5 years , while LDCS will do so in 8 years. NLDCS will reduce their tariffs for LDCS products to 0-5% in 3 years.

bilateral trade meaning

Further, keeping in view the strategic importance, it has been decided to include Chabahar Port into INSTC project and to get this issue included in the agenda of the next INSTC meeting to be held in Azerbaijan. Monitoring of monthly economic reports prepared by the Indian Commercial Wings in these countries. Full access to our intuitive epaper – clip, save, share articles from any device; newspaper archives from 2006.


In a nutshell, India sought to do more without insisting on strict reciprocity from Sri Lanka. There is a significant difference between business commerce and trade. It mainly deals with the selling and purchasing of products and does not include anything else. However, commerce stands for the entire process of delivering products from manufacturers to consumers. It comprises factors like transportation, banking and insurance, warehousing etc. Banking and insurance services provide the needed financial assistance to the businesses at every stage.

Contrarily, commerce includes all the activities vital to making a trade happen. It deals with vital factors responsible for an exchange of goods apart from the transaction itself. Therefore it is crucial to obtain a better understanding of these two concepts before https://1investing.in/ moving on to the discussion of trade vs commerce. Commerce and trade are often considered the same thing, and these two terms are mostly used interchangeably. However, that is not the actual case; they are very different from each other and have different meanings.

The grant covers procurement of 209 ambulances, training costs, as well as operational costs for one year after launch of services. To further broaden the scope of FTA and to strengthen the economic, trade, investment and technology cooperation between India and Sri Lanka, ETCA was proposed and negotiations were conducted. Economic and Technology Co-operation Agreement covers both goods and services.

Availability of resources

(In other words, the aggregate value addition should not be less than 35% of the FOB value of the finished product, while the DVA in the exporting country should be minimum 25% of the FOB value). The India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement was signed in 1998 and entered into force in March 2000. The ISFLTA took into account asymmetries between the two economies, local socio-economic sensitivities, necessity of safeguard measures to protect domestic interests.

So Liam and Henry will exchange food and wool with each other so that Liam gets food and Henry gets wool making both of them satisfied. Lastly, it even improves the performance of a country in financial aspects by giving job opportunities to people and taxes to the government which will drastically improve the country’s financial standings and incomes. Trade is a practice going on for centuries with its own variations and techniques. Thus, this collective need is what leads a person to swap their items in hand to fulfill both of their requirements. If you wish to add more information, please comment below about Bilateral Trade agreement Vs. unilateral Trade Agreement.

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